Queen Elizabeth II (1952-Present)
Elizabeth II, born April 21, 1926, is the eldest daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. She married Philip Mountbatten, a distant cousin, in 1947; the pair have four children: Charles, Prince of Wales, Anne, Andrew and Edward. She has reigned for forty-six years, and appears capable of remaining on the throne for quite some time.
Monarchy, as an institution in Europe, all but disappeared during the two World Wars: a scant ten monarchs remain today, seven of which have familial ties to England. Elizabeth is, by far, the best known of these, and is the most widely traveled Head of State in the world. Her ascension was accompanied by constitutional innovation; each independent, self-governing country proclaimed Elizabeth, Queen of their individual state. She approves of the transformation from Empire to Commonwealth, describing the change as a "beneficial and civilized metamorphosis." The indivisibility of the crown was formally abandoned by statute in 1953, and "Head of the Commonwealth" was added to the long list of royal titles which she possesses.
Elizabeth's travels have won the adulation of her subjects; she is greeted with honest enthusiasm and warm regard with each visit abroad. She has been the master link in a chain of unity forged among the various countries within the Commonwealth. Hence, the monarchy, as well as the Empire, has evolved - what once was the image of absolute power is now a symbol of fraternity.
Elizabeth has managed to maintain a division between her public and private life. She is the first monarch to send her children to boarding schools in order to remove them from the ever-probing media. She has a strong sense of duty and diligence and dispatches her queenly business with great candor, efficiency and dignity. Her knowledge of current situations and trends is uncannily up to date, often to the embarrassment of her Prime Ministers. Harold Wilson, upon his retirement, remarked, "I shall certainly advise my successor to do his homework before his audience." Churchill, who had served four monarchs, was impressed and delighted by her knowledge and wit. She possesses a sense of humor rarely exhibited in public where a dignified presence is her goal.
The Form and Order of Service that is to be performed and the Ceremonies that are to be observed in
The Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, on Tuesday, the second day of June, 1953.
I. The Preparation
In the morning upon the day of the Coronation early, care is to be taken that the Ampulla be filled with Oil for the anointing, and, together with the Spoon, be laid ready upon the Altar in the Abbey Church.
The LITANY shall be sung as the Dean and Prebendaries and the choir of Westminster proceed from the Altar to the west door of the Church.
The Archbishops being already vested in their Copes and Mitres and the Bishops Assistant in their Copes, the procession shall be formed immediately outside of the west door of the Church, and shall wait till notice be given of the approach of her Majesty, and shall then begin to move into the Church.
And the people shall remain standing from the Entrance until the beginning of the Communion Service.
II. The Entrance into the Church
The Queen, as soon as she enters at the west door of the Church, is to be received with this Anthem:
Psalm 122, 13, 6, 7
I was glad when they said unto me:
We will go into the house of the Lord Our feet shall stand in thy gates:
The Queen shall in the mean time pass up through the body of the Church, into and through the choir, and so up the steps to the Theatre; and having passed by her Throne, she shall make her humble adoration, and then kneeling at the faldstool set for her before her Chair of Estate on the south side of the Altar, use some short private prayers; and after, sit down in her Chair.
The Bible, Paten, and Chalice shall meanwhile be brought by the Bishops who had borne them, and placed upon the Altar.
Then the Lords who carry in procession the Regalia, except those who carry the Swords, shall come from their places and present in order every one what he carries to the Archbishop, who shall deliver them to the Dean of Westminster, to be placed by him upon the Altar.
III. The Recognition
The Archbishop, together with the Lord Chancellor, Lord Great Chamberlain, Lord High Constable, and Earl Marshal (Garter King of Arms preceding them), shall then go to the East side of the Theatre, and after shall go to the other three sides in this order, South, West, and North, and at every of the four sides the Archbishop shall with a loud voice speak to the People: and the Queen in the mean while, standing up by King Edward's Chair, shall turn and show herself unto the People at every of the four sides of the Theatre as the Archbishop is at every of them, the Archbishop saying:
Sirs, I here present unto you
The People signify their willingness and joy, by loud and repeated acclamations, all with one voice crying out,
GOD SAVE QUEEN ELIZABETH.
Then the trumpets shall sound.
IV. The Oath
The Queen having returned to her Chair (her Majesty having already on Tuesday, the fourth day of November, 1952, in the presence of the two Houses of Parliament, made and signed the Declaration prescribed by Act of Parliament), the Archbishop standing before her shall administer the Coronation Oath, first asking the Queen,
Madam, is your Majesty willing to take the Oath?
And the Queen answering,
The Archbishop shall minister these questions; and the Queen, having a book in her hands, shall answer each question severally as follows:
Archbishop: Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?
Queen: I solemnly promise so to do.
Archbishop: Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?
Queen: I will.
Archbishop: Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel?
Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law?
Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England?
And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
Queen: All this I promise to do.
Then the Queen arising out of her Chair, supported as before, the Sword of State being carried before her, shall go to the Altar, and make her solemn Oath in the sight of
all the people to observe the premisses: laying her right hand upon the Holy Gospel in the great Bible (which was before carried in the procession and is now brought from the altar by the Archbishop, and tendered to her as she kneels upon the steps), and saying these words:
The things which I have here promised, I will perform, and keep. So help me God.
Then the Queen shall kiss the Book and sign the Oath.
The Queen having thus taken her Oath, shall return again to her Chair, and the Bible shall be delivered to the Dean of Westminster.
V. The Presenting of the Holy Bible
When the Queen is again seated, the Archbishop shall go to her Chair; and the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, receiving the Bible from the Dean of Westminster, shall bring it to the Queen and present it to her, the Archbishop saying these words:
Our gracious Queen:
And the Moderator shall continue:
Then shall the Queen deliver back the Bible to the Moderator, who shall bring it to the Dean of Westminster, to be reverently placed upon the Altar. This done, the Archbishop shall return to the Altar.
VI. The Beginning of the Communion Service
Psalm 84, 9, 10.
Then, the Queen with the people kneeling, the Archbishop shall begin the Communion Service saying:
Archbishop: Lord have mercy upon us.
LET US PRAY
1 S. Peter 2, 13.
Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: as free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.
Psalm 141, 2.
S. Matthew 22, 15.
Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Cæsar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's: and unto God the things that are God's. When they heard these words they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.
And the Gospel ended shall be sung the Creed following, the Queen with the people standing, as before.
I believe in one God,
And in one Lord Jesus Christ,
And I believe in the Holy Ghost,
VII. The Anointing
The Creed being ended, the Queen kneeling at her faldstool, and the people kneeling in their places, the Archbishop shall begin the hymn, VENI, CREATOR SPIRITUS, and the choir shall sing it out.
Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire,
Thy blessed Unction from above
Anoint and cheer our soiled face
Teach us to know the Father, Son
Praise to thy eternal merit,
The hymn being ended, the Archbishop shall say:
LET US PRAY
O Lord and heavenly Father,
This prayer being ended, and the people standing, the choir shall sing:
I Kings 1, 39, 40.
In the mean time, the Queen rising from her devotions, having been disrobed of her crimson robe by the Lord Great Chamberlain, assisted by the Mistress of the Robes, and being uncovered, shall go before the Altar, supported and attended as before.
The Queen shall sit down in King Edward's Chair (placed in the midst of the Area over against the Altar, with a faldstool before it), wherein she is to be anointed. Four Knights of the Garter shall hold a rich pall of silk, or cloth of gold: the Dean of Westminster, taking the Ampulla and Spoon from off the Altar, shall hold them ready, pouring some holy Oil into the Spoon, and with it the Archbishop shall anoint the Queen in the form of a cross:
On the palms of both hands, saying,
On the breast, saying,
On the crown of the head, saying,
And as Solomon was anointed king
Then shall the Dean of Westminster lay the Ampulla and Spoon upon the Altar; and the Queen kneeling down at the faldstool, the Archbishop shall say this Blessing over her:
This prayer being ended, the Queen shall arise and sit down again in King Edward's Chair, while the Knights of the Garter bear away the pall; whereupon the Queen arising, the Dean of Westminster, assisted by the Mistress of the Robes, shall put upon her Majesty the Colobium Sindonis and the Supertunica or Close Pall of cloth of gold, together with a Girdle of the same. Then shall the Queen again sit down; and after her, the people also.
VIII. The Presenting of the Spurs and Sword, and the Oblation of the said Sword
The Spurs shall be brought from the Altar by the Dean of Westminster, and delivered to the Lord Great Chamberlain; who, kneeling down, shall present them to the Queen, who forthwith sends them back to the Altar.
Then the Lord who carries the Sword of State, delivering to the Lord Chamberlain the said Sword (which is thereupon deposited in Saint Edward's Chapel) shall receive from the Lord Chamberlain, in lieu thereof, another Sword in a scabbard which he shall deliver to the Archbishop: and the Archbishop shall lay it on the Altar and say:
Hear our prayers, O Lord, we beseech thee,
Then shall the Archbishop take the Sword from off the Altar, and (the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of London and Winchester assisting and going along with him) shall deliver it into the Queen's hands; and, the Queen holding it, the Archbishop shall say:
Receive this kingly Sword,
Then the Queen, rising up and going to the Altar, shall offer it there in the scabbard, and then return and sit down in King Edward's Chair: and the Peer, who first received the Sword, shall offer the price of it, namely, one hundred shillings, and having thus redeemed it, shall receive it from the Dean of Westminster, from off the Altar, and draw it out of the scabbard, and carry it naked before her Majesty during the rest of the solemnity.
Then the Archbishop of York and the Bishops who have assisted during the offering shall return to their places.
IX. The Investing with the Armills, the Stole Royal and the Robe Royal: and the Delivery of the Orb
Then the Dean of Westminster shall deliver the Armills to the Archbishop, who, putting them upon the Queen's wrists, shall say:
Receive the Bracelets of sincerity and wisdom,
Then the Queen arising, the Robe Royal or Pall of cloth of gold with the Stole Royal shall be delivered by the Groom of the Robes to the Dean of Westminster, and by him, assisted by the Mistress of the Robes, put upon the Queen, standing; the Lord Great Chamberlain fastening the clasps. Then shall the Queen sit down, and the Archbishop shall say:
Receive this Imperial Robe,
The Delivery of the Orb
Then shall the Orb with the Cross be brought from the Altar by the Dean of Westminster and delivered into the Queen's right hand by the Archbishop, saying:
Receive this Orb set under the Cross,
Then shall the Queen deliver the Orb to the Dean of Westminster, to be by him laid upon the Altar.
X. The Investiture per annulum, et per sceptrum et baculum
Then the Keeper of the Jewel House shall deliver to the Archbishop the Queen's Ring, wherein is set a sapphire and upon it a ruby cross: the Archbishop shall put it on the fourth finger of her Majesty's right hand, and say:
Receive the Ring of kingly dignity,
Then shall the Dean of Westminster bring the Sceptre with the Cross and the Rod with the Dove to the Archbishop.
The Glove having been presented to the Queen, the Archbishop shall deliver the Sceptre with the Cross into the Queen's right hand, saying:
And then he shall deliver the Rod with the Dove into the Queen's left hand, and say:
XI. The Putting on of the Crown
Then the people shall rise; and the Archbishop,
standing before the Altar, shall take the Crown into his hands, and laying it again before him upon the Altar, he shall say:
O God the Crown of the faithful:
Then the Queen still sitting in King Edward's Chair, the Archbishop, assisted with other Bishops, shall come to the Altar: the Dean of Westminster shall bring the Crown, and the Archbishop taking it of him shall reverently put it upon the Queen's head. At the sight whereof the people, with loud and repeated shouts, shall cry,
GOD SAVE THE QUEEN
The Princes and Princesses, the Peers and Peeresses shall put on their coronets and caps, and the Kings of Arms their crowns; and the trumpets shall sound, and by a signal given, the great guns at the Tower shall be shot off.
The acclamation ceasing, the Archbishop shall go on, and say:
God crown you with a crown of glory and righteousness,
Then shall the choir sing:
Be strong and of a good courage:
And the people shall remain standing until after the Homage be ended.
XII. The Benediction
And now the Queen having been thus anointed and crowned, and having received all the ensigns of Royalty, the Archbishop shall solemnly bless her: and the Archbishop of York and all the Bishops, with the rest of the Peers and all the people, shall follow every part of the Benediction with a loud and hearty Amen.
The Lord bless you and keep you.
The Lord give you faithful Parliaments and quiet Realms;
May Wisdom and Knowledge be the Stability of your Times,
The Lord who hath made you Queen over these Peoples
Then shall the Archbishop turn to the people and say:
XIII. The Enthroning
Then shall the Queen go to her Throne, and be lifted up into it by the Archbishops and Bishops, and other Peers of the Kingdom; and being enthroned, or placed therein, all the Great Officers, those that bear the Swords and the Sceptres, and the Nobles that carried the other Regalia, shall stand round about the steps of the Throne; and the Archbishop, standing before the Queen, shall say:
Stand firm, and hold fast from henceforth
XIV. The Homage
The Exhortation being ended, all the Princes and Peers then present shall do their Fealty and Homage publicly and solemnly unto the Queen: and the Queen shall deliver her Sceptre with the Cross and the Rod with the Dove, to some one near to the Blood Royal, or to the Lords that carried them in the procession, or to any other that she pleaseth to assign, to hold them by her, till the Homage be ended.
And the Bishops that support the Queen in the procession may also ease her, by supporting the Crown, as there shall be occasion.
The Archbishop shall first ascend the steps of the Throne and kneel down before her Majesty, and the rest of the Bishops shall kneel in their places: and they shall do their Fealty together, for the shortening of the ceremony: and the Archbishop, placing his hands between the Queen's shall say:
I, Geoffrey, Archbishop of Canterbury
Then shall the Archbishop kiss the Queen's right hand. After which the Duke of Edinburgh shall ascend the steps of the Throne, and having taken off his coronet, shall kneel down before her Majesty, and placing his hands between the Queen's shall pronounce the words of Homage, saying:
I, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
And arising, he shall touch the Crown upon her Majesty's head and kiss her Majesty's left cheek.
In like manner shall the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent severally do their homage. After which the Senior Peer of each degree (of the Dukes first by themselves, and so of the Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons in that order) shall ascend the steps of the Throne and, having first removed his coronet, shall kneel before her Majesty and place his hands between the Queen's: and all the peers of his degree, having put off their coronets, shall kneel in their places and shall say with him:
I, N. Duke, or Earl, etc., of N.
This done, the Senior Peer shall rise, and, all the Peers of his degree rising also, he shall touch the Crown upon her Majesty's head, as promising by that ceremony for himself and his Order to be ever ready to support it with all their power; and then shall he kiss the Queen's right hand.
At the same time the choir shall sing these anthems, or some of them:
Rejoice in the Lord alway,
O clap your hands together, all ye people:
I will not leave you comfortless. Alleluia.
O Lord our Governour:
Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace,
When the Homage is ended, the drums shall beat, and the trumpets sound, and all the people shout, crying out:
God save Queen ELIZABETH.
Long live Queen ELIZABETH.
May the Queen live for ever.
Then shall the Archbishop leave the Queen in her Throne and go to the Altar.
XV. The Communion
Then shall the organ play and the people shall with one voice sing this hymn:
All people that on earth do dwell,
The Lord, ye know, is God indeed,
O enter then his gates with praise,
For why? the Lord our God is good:
To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,
In the mean while the Queen shall descend from her Throne, supported and attended as before, and go to the steps of the Altar, where, delivering her Crown and her Sceptre and Rod to the Lord Great Chamberlain or other appointed Officers to hold, she shall kneel down.
The hymn ended and the people kneeling, first the Queen shall offer Bread and Wine for the Communion, which being brought out of Saint Edward's Chapel, and delivered into her hands (the Bread upon the Paten by the Bishop that read the Epistle, and the Wine in the Chalice by the Bishop that read the Gospel), shall be received from the Queen by the Archbishop, and reverently placed upon the Altar, and decently covered with a fair linen cloth, the Archbishop first saying this prayer:
Bless, O Lord, we beseech thee, these thy gifts,
Then the Queen, kneeling as before, shall make her Oblation, offering a Pall or Altar-cloth delivered by the Groom of the Robes to the Lord Great Chamberlain, and by him, kneeling, to her Majesty, and an Ingot or Wedge of Gold of a pound weight, which the Treasurer of the Household shall deliver to the Lord Great Chamberlain, and he to her Majesty; and the Archbishop coming to her, shall receive and place them upon the Altar.
Then shall the Queen go to her faldstool, set before the Altar between the steps and King Edward's Chair, and the Duke of Edinburgh, coming to his faldstool set beside the Queen's shall take off his coronet. Then shall they kneel down together, and the Archbishop shall say this prayer:
Almighty God, the fountain of all goodness:
Then shall the Archbishop bless the Duke, saying:
Then the Archbishop, returning to the Altar, shall say:
Almighty and everliving God, who in thy holy Word hast taught us to make prayers, and supplications, and to give thanks for all men: we humbly beseech thee most mercifully to accept these oblations, and to receive these our prayers which we offer unto thy Divine Majesty; beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: And grant, that all they that do confess thy holy Name may agree in the truth of thy holy Word, and live in unity and godly love.
We beseech thee also to save and defend all Christian Kings, Princes and Governors; and specially thy servant ELIZABETH our Queen; that under her we may be godly and quietly governed; and grant unto her whole Council, and to all that are put in authority under her, that they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion, and virtue.
Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all Bishops and Curates, that they may, both by their life and doctrine, set forth thy true and lively Word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy Sacraments; and specially to this congregation here present; that, with meek heart and due reverence, they may hear, and receive thy holy Word; truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life.
And we most humbly beseech thee, of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all them, who, in this transitory life, are in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity.
And we also bless thy holy Name for all thy servants departed this life in thy faith and fear; beseeching thee to give us grace so to follow their good examples, that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom:
Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.
Ye that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, and are in love and charity with your neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his holy ways; Draw near with faith, and make your humble confession to Almighty God, meekly kneeling upon your knees.
The General Confession.
Almighty God, our heavenly Father,
Then shall the Archbishop say:
Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith unto all that truly turn to him.
Come unto me, all ye that travail and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you.
So God loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, to the end that all that believe in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
Here also what Saint Paul saith.
Here also what Saint John saith.
After which the Archbishop shall proceed, saying:
Lift up your hearts.
Then shall the Archbishop turn to the Lord's Table, and say:
It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty,
Who hast at this time consecrated thy servant
Therefore with Angels and Archangels,
Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts,
The Prayer of Humble Access:
We do not presume
The Prayer of Consecration:
Almighty God, our heavenly Father,
Hear us, O merciful Father,
Who in the same night that he was betrayed,
Likewise, after supper,
When the Archbishop, and the dean of Westminster, with the Bishops Assistant (namely, those who carried the Bible, Paten and Chalice in the Procession), have communicated in both kinds, the Queen with the Duke of Edinburgh shall advance to the steps of the Altar and, both kneeling down, the Archbishop shall administer the Bread, and the Dean of Westminster the Cup, to them. And in the mean time the choir shall sing:
O taste, and see, how gracious the Lord is:
At the delivery of the Bread shall be said:
At the delivery of the Cup:
After which the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh shall return to their faldstools; and the Archbishop shall go on to the Post-Communion, he and all the people saying:
Our Father, which art in heaven,
For thine is the kingdom,
And after shall be said as followeth:
O Lord and heavenly Father,
Then, all the people standing, the Queen shall rise and, receiving again her Crown and taking the Sceptre and Rod into her hands, shall repair to her Throne; and the Duke, putting on his coronet, shall return to his place.
Then shall be sung:
O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesu Christ;
For thou only art holy;
Then, the people kneeling, the Archbishop shall say:
The peace of God, which passeth all understanding,
The solemnity of the Queen's Coronation being thus ended, the people shall stand, and the choir shall sing:
Te Deum Laudamus
We praise thee, O God:
Thou art the King of Glory:
O Lord, save thy people:
XVII. The Recess
In the mean time, the Queen, supported as before, the four swords being carried before her, shall descend from her Throne, crowned and carrying the Sceptre and the Rod in her hands, and shall go into the Area eastward of the Theatre; and, the Archbishop going before her, she shall pass on through the door on the south side of the Altar into Saint Edward's Chapel; and after her shall follow the Groom of the Robes, the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Lords that carried the Regalia in the procession (the Dean of Westminster delivering the Orb, the Spurs and St Edward's Staff to the Bearers of them as they pass the Altar); and lastly shall go in the Dean.
And, the Te Deum ended, the people may be seated until the Queen comes again from the Chapel.
The Queen, being come into the Chapel, shall deliver to the Archbishop, being at the Altar there, the Sceptre and the Rod to be laid upon the Altar: and the Archbishop shall receive the Queen's Crown and lay it upon the Altar also. Then, assisted by the Mistress of the Robes, and attended by the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Groom of the Robes, the Queen shall be disrobed of the Robe Royal and arrayed in her Robe of purple velvet.
Meanwhile the Dean of Westminster shall lay upon the Altar the Orb, the Spurs and St Edward's Staff, having received them from the Bearers of them, who shall then (preceded by the Bearers of the Four Swords) withdraw from the Chapel by the same door on the south side and take the places assigned to them in the procession.
The Queen being ready, and wearing her Imperial Crown, shall receive the Sceptre with the Cross into her right hand and into her left hand the Orb from the Archbishop, who, having delivered them, shall withdraw from the Chapel and take his place in the procession: and the Lord Great Chamberlain shall do likewise.
Then her Majesty, supported and attended as before, shall leave the Chapel by the same door on the south side and shall proceed in state through the choir and the nave to the west door of the Church, wearing her Crown and bearing in her right hand the Sceptre and in her left hand the Orb.
And as the Queen proceeds from the Chapel, there shall be sung by all assembled the National Anthem.
The Queen's Coronation
God Save The Queen