William of Orange Watches the

English Scene and prepares for the

"Glorious Revolution"

William Of Orange Leaves For England.

William of Orange leaves for England


To the Englishman or woman of 1688 the greatest event of the previous 100 years had been the Civil War, and before that the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The quarrel between king and Parliament had resulted in four years of bitter but spasmodic conflict with little achieved at its end. In 1688 most people were reluctant to begin another such conflict. But Protestants enjoyed less religious freedom after the Restoration that they had during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. A Totnes woman, Joanna Punchard, summed it all up in 1685 when she was prosecuted for non-attendance at (the established) church: 'I care not who is king so that 1 can enjoy my religion (in my own way)'. Charles 11 had promised religious toleration for all sects in the Declaration of Breda in 1660. But Charles's Parliament thought otherwise. In fact, after 1662 the Church of England ceased to be the Church of all English people. Those who did not attend its services, Catholics or Protestants, were regularly fined and strictly excluded from taking their place in public life' This was the age when John Bunyan wrote The Pilgrim's Progress whilst shut up in Bedford gaol. His case was not uncommon. Francis Barnfield was detained for nine years in Dorchester gaol and then moved to London, where he was re-arrested and died in Newgate prison aged seventy.

At Totnes matters were slightly better. Thomas Whiddon was ejected as a licensed preacher there in 1662 but allowed to continue an unofficial ministry outside the town until his death in 1679. His congregations had to pay the usual fines, of course. In 1675 the mayor, Mr Shapleigh, found his own wife at such a meeting and, further, was forced to pay her fine for her. Exactly 100 years before 1688 had occurred the attempted invasion of England by the Spanish Armada - Spain's failure to restore the Catholic Church in England. Fear of a new attempt remained strong throughout the seventeenth century. The real Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was followed by the imagined popish plot of 1678, as a result of which about thirty Catholics were executed. In France it was the turn of the Protestants to be persecuted, Their arrival in large numbers in England and Holland made any move towards toleration of Catholics in England impossible. Yet in 1670 Charles 11 had signed a secret agreement (the Treaty of Dover) whereby he committed himself 'when the time was ripe' to turn Catholic himself and to accept French military assistance to supervise the restoration of the Catholic Church in England. Charles himself was cynical enough to take Louis XIV'S money, knowing full well that the time would never be ripe. His brother James, a simpler type of man, thought otherwise. On the death of his first wife, Anne Hyde, he married the Catholic princess Mary Beatrice of Modena and turned Catholic himself. Since he made no attempt to hide his religion it soon became public knowledge. The new Test Act of 1673 forced him to give up the office of Lord High Admiral of England. From that moment everyone was made aware that the next king of England would be a Catholic. A political group soon emerged to campaign for the removal of James, Duke of York from the succession to the throne and his replacement by either the Duke of Monmouth or by Mary, Princess of Orange, wife of William of Orange. Their leader was Shaftesbury, who tried to get Parliament to put his proposals into effect with an exclusion bill. To avoid this Charles 11 dissolved Parliament and ruled without it.

In 1681 it seemed that once more civil war was about to break out in England. Crowds marched the streets of London and Oxford with banners saying 'No Popery No Slavery'. But the mood passed. Shaftesbury accepted defeat and fled to Holland. The extremists of the Green Ribbon Club now plotted to assassinate both Charles 11 and his brother James on their way back to London at a place called Rye House. Luckily Charles returned to London sooner than expected. But details of the plot leaked out. Lord William Russell and Algernon Sidney were arrested, tried and executed for their possible connections with the actual plotters. Lesser Whigs removed hastily to Holland and the Russell and Sidney families privately vowed vengeance but were most careful to see that the family estates were put in no danger. Admiral Edward Russell resigned from the navy and together with Henry Sidney began a secret correspondence with William of Orange which was to result five years later in the arrival of William's fleet in Torbay. One of those who found the need to travel to Holland at this time was Charles ll's eldest illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth. On arrival, he and Lord Brandon were given full military honours by the six English regiments on permanent loan to William of Orange. This almost caused a break of diplomatic relations between England and Holland. It certainly clouded relations between Charles and his nephew William. Yet William's position as a member of the Stuart royal family by birth and also by marriage could never be called into question.

Personal letters continued to be exchanged between Whitehall and The Hague but the gradual drift apart was becoming noticeable. William's requests to visit the English court were now refused, forcing him to size up the situation through his ambassador. He was the tireless enemy of Louis XIV, not only because of Louis' invasion of Holland in 1672 with Charles ll's acquiescence, but especially because of his invasion of William's ancestral principality of Orange in 1682 and the confiscation of its revenues. James at least had complained about this latest affront to William but had received a frosty reply from Louis. James also received a cool response from William when he complained that there were now far too many of the king's enemies residing in Holland. One of these was Dr Bumet, who had been forced to leave England because of his outspoken praise for the motives of the Rye House plotters. He soon became a personal friend of William of Orange and from 1686 onwards increasingly pressed him to take sides in English politics. William remained neutral but took no action against Charles ll's and James's enemies.

On 6th February 1685 Charles II died and his brother became James II. Immediately both William's and James's problems became greater. The Duke of Monmouth and the Duke of Argyll were both busily preparing to assault James's new dominions. James wrote to his ambassador in Holland demanding the arrest of the plotters. He wrote to William when the ambassador could secure no action from the Dutch authorities. William replied that he knew of no such activity! In fact, both expeditions left Holland without either help or interference from William. James then wrote requesting the temporary return of the three English and three Scottish regiments in Holland. William not only agreed to this but offered to lead them in person against the Duke of Monmouth. William, no doubt, was sure that his father-in-law would never agree. He didn't. So James II's reign began badly while he remained quite unaware. This itself was a bad omen. The two rebellions were speedily suppressed and their leaders executed, but James showed a nasty side to his nature in permitting and driving on judge Jeffrey’s ''Bloody Assize' or 'The Western Campaign', as James himself so unfeelingly called it. More than 1200 men died in the Battle of Sedgemoor. Another 200 were executed after trial by judge Jeffrey’s. Some 800 Monmouth men were transported after trial, con- demned to ten years as slaves (if they lived that long). Since more than 5000 men had turned out for Monmouth, over 2000 men were 'on the run' in the West Country and no friends of King James.

Apart from the West Country James inherited a peaceful kingdom whose subjects were mostly well-disposed towards him. Above all, he inherited a manageable Parliament filled with men friendly to the king, thanks to Charles II's discovery of a new method of controlling the election of M.P.'s. Charles had called in the charters of most of the ancient towns and cities of the land on the plausible grounds that they were out 'of date, and reissued them with powers reserved to the king to order re-election if he disapproved of the result of a parliamentary election. James was pleased to find that Parliament voted him an income for life, as was the custom. He then began, modestly enough, to unveil his plans for the Catholic religion. The offensive words on the Fire Monument in London, added in 1681 and blaming, papists' for the fire, must be removed. Next, all prosecutions for non - attendance at church services must be suspended. This was a large enough pill to swallow but James, lacking his brother's tact or even plain common sense, insisted that Parliament give their stamp of approval to his new plans by the formal repeal of the Test Act. This Parliament naturally refused to do. James angrily closed the session and sent the members home. Parliament was not to meet again while he remained king. James had decided to do without Parliament. What James was unable to see was that circumstances might arise when Parliament would decide to do without James. James now openly set in motion the plan which Charles had secretly entered into with Louis XIV but never intended to use. It was a plan of astounding simplicity: to ignore the prejudices of the majority of his subjects, to ignore the existing statute laws, to ignore his solemn undertaking given in his opening speech to Parliament, even to ignore his coronation oath. Finally, it was a plan which even the pope felt was much too dangerous, to be used. Feeling that he was morally right, James ignored the obvious danger and decided to carry out the policy on his authority alone. Technically he was correct. The king of England could use his prerogative to overrule a statute made by Parliament. Infrequently used, this authority was still valid in 1685. Elizabeth 1 had had no doubts of her authority. She had on occasion sent a Member of Parliament to the Tower for daring to discuss the need for her to marry. But Elizabeth 1 was far too clever to use her prerogative in religious matters. Indeed she had brought about the Elizabethan Settlement, which kept most of her subjects content with her Church of England. Yet times had changed since Elizabeth's day. The essential fact of the restoration of Charles 11 was that he had been recalled by Parliament, and that Parliament, not the king, was now the ultimate authority in England. This James would never accept. Charles had often said that his brother would not last long as king. Now, in 1685, he set out to prove his brother right. In the year when Louis XIV made an end to any legal protection for non-Catholics in France with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes James took equally high-handed action in England. He used his royal prerogative over and over again. He used it to excess. He appointed Catholic officers to the army and navy. He even had the lack of tact to try to appoint a Catholic officer to command the English regiments on loan to William of Orange in Protestant Holland. He forced the election of Catholics to controlling positions in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. By 1688 he had strained the patience of his subjects to the limit. In May 1688 he commanded that his Declaration of Indulgence, setting aside the Test Act, be read twice in every church in the land. This proved to be the last straw. James had finally set the whole Church of England against him. Seven bishops volunteered to wait on James to explain that his commands could not be obeyed since they were contrary to the law of the land. James, in the manner of Queen Elizabeth, happily sent the bishops to the Tower. On 10 June James’s young queen Mary Beatrice gave birth to a son, the ill-fated James Edward. Instead of shouts of joy only groans were to be heard. James's subjects felt that they had come to the parting of the ways. One mad king was a misfortune to be patiently borne but the prospect of a whole family of fanatics was quite another matter. The religious minefield that James had so diligently constructed now exploded around him. When after their trial on 30 June the bishops were declared not guilty, even James’s own soldiers cheered. In The Netherlands William received many callers who pressed him to use his influence with James to make him see sense. Some were more blunt and told him to come in person - with an army. Lord Mordaunt had said this in September 1686 but William had refused to act. Gradually he came to change his mind, however. In late April 1688 Admiral Edward Russell, cousin of the executed Lord William Russell, put it to William even more bluntly; to paraphrase: 'Come with an army this year or don't bother. We will act without you.' This time William listened carefully' He knew that Mary Beatrice was pregnant and that if her child was a boy his wife, Mary, Princess of Orange, would lose for ever her chance to be queen of England. This time William said yes. He could come with an army in September but only if he received a formal invitation from important leaders of English society.

Much letter-writing in cipher followed Russell's return to England. William was sent a list of numbers with the names they represented. On 24 May Admiral Herbert wrote: 'Sir, It is from Mr Russell 1 have understood it to be your pleasure 1 should come over where 1 may be assured of Your Highness's protection. It is a favour 1 mean very soon to embrace.' Finally, Admiral Herbert smuggled across to William, in person, the following long- awaited letter: We have great satisfaction to find by 35 and by Mon. Zulestein that Your Highness is so ready and willing to give us such assistances as they have been related to us. We have great reason to believe we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are and less able to defend ourselves and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so 'happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance, but although these be our wishes yet we will by no means put Your Highness into any expectations which may misguide your own Councells (Counsellors) in this matter so that the best we can give is to inform your Highness truly, both of the state of things at this time... The people are generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of government in relation to their religion, liberties and properties, all of which have been greatly invaded, that Your Highness may be assured nineteen out of twenty people throughout the kingdom are desirous of a change. There is no doubt but that some of the most considerable of the nobility and gentry would venture themselves with Your Highness at your first landing, whose interests would be able to draw great numbers to them. We who subscribe this will not fail to attend Your Highness upon your landing ... take care to bring some good engineers with you, and we have desired Mr H "Admiral Herbert" to consult you about such matters, to whom we have communicated our thoughts in many particulars ... and about which no certain resolutions can be taken till we have heard again from Your Highness. Those who signed this letter of invitation., dated 30 June 1688, became( known as the 'Immortal Seven'. They were: The Earl of Shrewsbury, The Bishop of London (Dr Compton) The Earl of Devonshire, Edward Russell, The Earl of Danby, Henry Sidney, Lord Lumley. William wasted no more time. On 20 July he made up his mind. On 22 July, he gave instructions to Marshall Schomberg to prepare for an autumn campaign in England.

William Of Orange.
William of Orange

Succession To The Throne.

The Russell Family Tree.

Three hundred years have passed since the people of England, oppressed by the tyrannical rule of their Catholic King, James II, turned for help to Prince William of Orange, grandson of Charles I of England. William landed at the little Devon port of Brixham on 5th November 1688 with an army of 15.000 men and advanced on London. His brilliant campaign achieved rapid success; within a few months James had fled and the reign of William III and Mary II of England had begun.

In April, 1689, William and Mary were jointly crowned King and Queen in Westminister Abbey. This must be strongly emphasised, as it is often believed and repeated, that "the Prince of Orange" did not become "King William III" until he "crossed the Boyne". In fact he had been King by law for eighteen months, and in fact for fourteen months, before "July the First" dawned in "sixteen ninety ".



King William III & Queen Mary II

Declaration Of Rights

Bill of Rights. (England 1689)

The succession to the British throne of James II brought a period of Despotic tyranny in government. The imposition of Roman Catholicism by force was an intolerable burden placed on British Protestants. This was seen most evident in the city of Londonderry where Protestant apprentice gatekeepers closed the gates of their walled town and suffered death and starvation in order to hold out against certain subjection to beliefs they could not accept. The situation was settled however when Protestant King William III, the Dutch Prince of Orange succeeded to the British throne. He was a Protestant, and his reign brought a promise of tolerance within his British Kingdom. He defeated the Roman Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland in 1690 and in a settlement between King and Parliament offered the British people a new era of tolerance and constitutional government enshrined in the Bill of Rights, which is listed here below.

An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and settling the Succession of the Crown.

Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster, lawfully, fully and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, did upon the thirteenth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-eight* present unto their Majesties, then called and known by the names and style of William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange , being present in their proper persons, a certain declaration in writing made by the said Lords and Commons in the words following,viz.:

Whereas the late King James the Second, by the assistance of divers evil counsellors, judges and ministers employed by him, did endeavour to subvert and extirpate the Protestant religion and the laws and liberties of this kingdom;

By assuming and exercising a power of dispensing with and suspending of laws without consent of Parliament;

By committing and prosecuting divers worthy prelates for humbly petitioning to be excused from concurring to the said assumed power;

By issuing and causing to be executed a commission under the great seal for erecting a court called the Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes;

By levying money for and to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative for other time and in other manner than the same was granted by Parliament;

By raising and keeping a standing army within this kingdom in time of peace without consent of Parliament, and quartering soldiers contrary to law;

By causing several good subjects being Protestants to be disarmed at the same time when papists were both armed and employed contrary to law;

By violating the freedom of election of members to serve in Parliament;

By prosecutions in the Court of King's Bench for matters and causes cognizable only in Parliament, and by divers other arbitrary and illegal courses;

And whereas of late years partial corrupt and unqualified persons have been returned and served on juries in trials, and particularly divers jurors in trials for high treason which were not freeholders;

And excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal cases to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects;

And excessive fines have been imposed;

And illegal and cruel punishments inflicted;

And several grants and promises made of fines forfeitures before any conviction or judgement against the persons upon whom the same were to be levied;

All which are utterly and directly contrary to the known laws and statutes and freedom of the realm;

All whereas the said late King James the second having abdicated the government and the throne being thereby vacant, his Highness the prince of Orange (whom it hath pleased Almighty God to make the glorious instrument of delivering this kingdom from popery and arbitrary power) did (by the advice of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal divers principal persons of the Commons) cause letters to be written to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal being Protestants, and other letters to the several counties, cities, universities, boroughs and cinque ports, for the choosing of such persons to represent them as were of right to be sent to Parliament,

To meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January in this year one thousand six hundred eighty and eight,* in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted, upon which letters elections having been accordingly made;

And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do further pray that it may be enacted, that all and every person and persons that is, are shall be reconciled to or shall hold communion with the see or Church of Rome, or shall profess the popish religion, or shall marry a papist, shall be excluded and be for ever incapable to inherit, possess or enjoy the crown and government of this realm and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging or any part of the same; or to have, or use or exercise any regal power, authority or jurisdiction within the same; and in all and every such case or cases the people of these realms shall be and are hereby absolved of their allegiance; and the said crown and government shall from time to time descend to and be enjoyed by such person or persons so reconciled, holding communion or professing or marrying as aforesaid were naturally dead; and that every king and queen of this realm who at any time hereafter shall come to and succeed in the imperial crown of this kingdom shall on the first day of the meeting of the first Parliament next after his or her coming to the crown, sitting in his or her throne in the House of Peers in the presence of the Lords and Commons therein assembled, or at his or her coronation before such person or persons who shall administer the coronation oath to him or her at the time of his or her taking the said oath ( which shall first happen), make, subscribe and audibly repeat the declaration mentioned in the statute made in the thirtieth year of the reign of King Charles the Second entitled, An Act for the more effectual preserving the king's person and government by disabling papists from sitting in either House of Parliament. But if it shall happen that such king or queen upon his or her succession to the crown of this realm shall be under the age of twelve years, then every such king or queen shall make, or subscribe and audibly repeat the said declaration at his or her coronation or the first day of the meeting of the first Parliament as aforesaid which shall first happen after such king queen shall have attained the said age of twelve years. All which their Majesties are contented and pleased shall be declared, enacted and established by authority of this present Parliament, and shall stand, remain and be the law of this realm for ever; and the same are by their said Majesties, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled and by the authority of the same declared, enacted and established accordingly.

And be it further declared and enacted and established by the authority aforesaid, that from and after this present session of Parliament no dispensation be non obstante of or to any statute or any part thereof shall be allowed, but that the same shall be held void and of no effect, except a dispensation be allowed of in such statute, and except in such cases as shall be specially provided for by one or more bill or bills to be passed during this present session of Parliament.

Provided that no charter or grant or pardon granted before the three and twentieth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-nine shall be any ways impeached or invalidated by this Act, but that the same shall be and remain of the same force and effect in law and no other than as if this Act had never been made.

I,A,B., do swear that I do from my heart abhor, detest and abjure as impious and heretical this damnable doctrine and position, that princes excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any authority of the see of Rome may be deposed or murdered by their subjects or any other whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate hath or ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, preeminence or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm. So help me God.

Upon which their said Majesties did accept the crown and royal dignity of the kingdom of England, France and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the resolution and desire of the said Lords and Commons contained in the said declaration. And thereupon their Majesties were pleased that the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, being the two Houses of Parliament, should continue to sit, and with their Majesties' royal concurrence make effectual provision for the settlement of the religion, laws and liberties of this kingdom, so that the same for the future might not be in danger again of being subverted, to which the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons did agree, and proceed to act accordingly. Now in pursuance of the premises the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled, for the ratifying, confirming and establishing the said declaration and the articles, clauses, matters and things therein contained by the force of a law made in due form by authority of Parliament, do pray that it may be declared are the true, ancient and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of this kingdom, and so shall be esteemed, allowed, adjudged, deemed and taken to be; and that all and every the particulars aforesaid shall be firmly and strictly Holden and observed as they are expressed in the said declaration, and all officers and ministers whatsoever shall serve their Majesties and their successors according to the same in all times to come. And the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, seriously considering how it hath pleased Almighty God in his marvellous providence and merciful goodness to this nation to provide and preserve their said Majesties' royal persons most happily to reign over us upon the throne of their ancestors, for which they render unto him from the bottom of their hearts their humblest thanks and praises, do truly, firmly, assuredly and in the sincerity of their hearts think, and do hereby recognize acknowledge and declare, that King James the Second having abdicated the government, and their Majesties having accepted the crown and royal dignity as aforesaid, their said Majesties did become, were, are and of right ought to be by the laws of this realm our sovereign liege lord and lady, king and queen of England, France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging, in and to whose princely persons the royal state, crown and dignity of the said realms with all honours, styles, titles, regalities, prerogatives, powers, jurisdictions and authorities to the same belonging and appertaining are most fully, rightfully and entirely invested and incorporated, united and annexed. And for preventing all questions and divisions in this realm by reason of any pretended titles to the crown, and for preserving a certain in the succession thereof, in upon which the unity, peace, tranquility and safety of this nation doth under God wholly consist and depend, the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do beseech their Majesties that it may be enacted, established and declared, that the crown and regal government of the said kingdoms and dominions, with all and singular the premises thereunto belonging and appertaing, shall be and continue to their said Majesties and the survivor of them during their lives and the life of the survivor of them, and that the entire, perfect and full exercise of the regal power and government be only in and executed by his Majesty in the names of both their Majesties during their joint lives; and after their decease's the said crown and premises shall be and remain to the heirs of the body of her Majesty, and for default of such issue to her Royal Highness the Princess Anne of Denmark and their heirs of her body, and for default of such issue to the heirs of the body of his said Majesty; and thereunto the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do in the name of all the people aforesaid most humbly and faithfully submit themselves, their heirs and prosterities for ever, and do faithfully promise that they will stand to, maintain and defend their said Majesties, and also the limitations and succession of the crown herein specified and contained, to the utmost of their powers with their lives and estates against all persons whatsoever that shall attempt anything to the contrary. And whereas it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed by a popish prince, or by any king or queen marrying a papist, the serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare.

That the pretend power of suspending of law or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretend power of dispensing with laws or the execution if laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levying money for or to use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it is with consent of Parliament, is against law;

That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law;

That election of members of Parliament ought to be free;

That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

That excessive bail ought not to be required, not excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;

That juror ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders;

That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void;

And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently. And they do claim, demand and insist upon all and singular the premises as their undoubted rights and liberties, and that no declarations, judgements, doings or proceedings to the prejudice of the people in any of the said premises ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter into consequence or example; to which demand of their rights they are particularly encouraged by the declaration of his Highness the prince of Orange as being the only means for obtaining a full redress and remedy therein. Having therefore an entire confidence that his said Highness the prince of Orange will perfect the deliverance so far advanced by him, and will still preserve them from the violation of their rights which they have here asserted, and from all other attempts upon their religion, rights and liberties, the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster do resolve that William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, be and be declared king and queen of England, France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging, to hold the crown and royal dignity of the said kingdoms and dominions to them, the said prince and princess, during their lives and the life if the survivor of them, and that the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said prince of Orange in the names of the said prince and princess during their joint lives, and after their decease's the said crown and royal dignity of the said and kingdoms and dominions to be to the heirs of the body of the said princess, and for default of such issue to the Princess Anne of Denmark and the heirs of her body, and for default of such issue to the heirs of the body of the said prince of Orange. And the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do pray the said prince and princess to accept the same accordingly.

And that the oaths hereafter mentioned be taken by all persons of whom the oath of allegiance and supremacy might be required by law, instead of them; and that the said oaths of allegiance and supremacy be abrogated.

I,A,B., do sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to their Majesties King William and Queen Mary. So help me God.

Loyalist & Orange c.d's for sale



Click hereSubmit your site to Orange PagesClick here Click hereGuestbook by GuestWorldClick here Click hereGuestbook by GuestWorldClick here